Mitochondria and cells are surrounded by a membrane made of special fats called phospholipids. Eggs, liver, beef brain, and soy are the highest natural sources of phospholipids, but there is evidence that supplementing at higher levels (versus diet alone) can improve everything from fatigue to cognitive function. The three main phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), are important for all cellular functions in the body, especially normal brain and muscle function.
Suggested Dosage: PC – 1-3 grams (1000-3000 mg) twice daily, PS – 200-500 mg twice daily, GPC – 200-300 mg twice daily. Ingredients can be obtained separately. Loose powder is the most cost-effective and easily mixes with liquids. Dosage recommendations are purely an estimate based on studying products available and limited scientific studies available. Look for products free of GMO soy. (Taking these types of fats as part of your daily regimen can improve absorption of other supplements.)
Side effects: None expected. Considered a functional food. Phospholipid supplements may actually enhance absorption of other supplements if taken together. Use with alpha-lipoic acid (and/or glutathione), NAC, and CoQ10 for complete mitochondrial support.